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Spalding Phonogram Rules and Cue Words

  1. In OPR Step 2, teach cue words and initially ask knowledge questions.
  2. In OPR Step 2, ask application questions when students understand the rule.
  3. In WPR Step 2, give only cues after students say sound(s) of the phonogram.
  4. Apply rules that govern phonogram placement/usage in the writing lesson.

Number(s) Phonogram(s) Cues/Rules WPR Cues
1-26 Single Letters none none
27-34 sh, ee, th, ow, ou, oo, ch, ar none none
35 ay "used at the end of a word" say sound only
36 ai "not used at the end of a word because English words do not end in "i" not used
37 oy "used at the end of a word" say sound only
38 oi "not used at the end of a word because English words do not end in "i" not used
39-43 er, ir, ur, wor, ear " word" (her, first, nurse, early) her, first, nurse, early ("wor" does not need cue.)
44-45 ng, ea none none
46 aw "used at the end of a word" say sound only
47 au "not used at the end of a word because English words do not end in "u" not used
48 or none none
49 ck 2 letter "used after a single vowel that says its first sound" 2 letter
50-51 wh, ed none none
52 ew "used at the end of a word" say sound only
53 ui "not used at the end of a word because English words do not end in "i" not used
54 oa "word" (boat) boat
55 gu none none
56 ph 2 letters 2 letters
57 ough none none
58 oe "word" (initially toe) none
59 ey none none
60 igh 3 letters (initially) none
61 kn 2 letters "used only at the beginning of a word" 2 letters - beginning
62 gn 2 letters "used at the beginning or end of a word" 2 letters
63 wr 2 letters 2 letters
64 ie none none
65 dge 3 letters "used after a single vowel that says its first sound" 3 letters
66 ei none none
67 eigh 4 letters 4 letters
68 ti tall tall
69 si none none
70 ci short short

Additional Phonograms Rules and Cue Words

  1. In OPR Step 2, teach cue words and initially ask knowledge questions.
  2. In OPR Step 2, ask application questions when students understand the rule.
  3. In WPR Step 2, give only cues after students say sound(s) of the phonogram.
  4. Apply rules that govern phonogram placement/usage in the writing lesson.
Number(s) Phonogram(s) Cues/Rules WPR Cues
71 tch 3 letters "used after a single vowel that says its first sound in a 1-syllable word" say sound only
72 eo "word" (people) people
73 eau 3 letters 3 letters
74 augh 4 letters 4 letters
75 ce "word" (ocean) ocean
76 gh "word" (ghost) ghost
77 gi "word" (region) region
78 our "word" (journey) journey
79 di "word" (soldier) soldier
80 cu "word" (biscuit) biscuit
81 aigh "word" (straight) straight
82 sc "word" (scene) scene
83 ge "word" (pigeon) pigeon
84 rh "word" (rhyme) rhyme
85 eu none none
86 sci "word" (conscientious) conscientious
87 pn "word" (pneumonia) pneumonia


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